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例谈高考英语完形填空题解题策略

来源:办公室 作者:郭传学 点击数: 发布时间:2012-12-12

 完形填空题侧重考查考生的语感以及语言的衔接、连贯、结构等语言知识运用能力。文章长约150词,基本不影响对语境的把握,要求根据上下文意思填入恰当的具有一定语法功能的词。本题设8空,共计12分,是2010年高考新题型。此题型没有提示,主要是要求考生填连词(包括主从复合句和并列复合句的连词)、冠词、介词、代词(包括人称代词、反身代词和不定代词等)、形容词和副词的比较

等级等。在此,笔者以2011年高考英语(湖南卷)完形填空题
为例,对该题的解题思路及解题步骤进行简要的阐述。
解题思路:
一.根据上下文
1. Get over the idea that you are too _____ to go back to school. I know a man who entered a medical college at 70. He got his degree with honors and became a famous doctor.
2. He dug for 12 hours …24hours. _______, in the 38th hour, he pulled back a large stone and heard his son’s voice.
3. They spend more than _____ hours a day eating, which means their meals are twice as long as those of the average Mexican, who dedicates just over an hour a day to food.
二、根据语法知识
1. Walking is _____ essential part of human life as it is a means of going to various places.
2. The little boy pulled ______ right hand out of the pocket.
3. _________ the tulip is the national flower of the Netherlands, the flower did not originate there.
4. We’re all born with exceptional qualities, ______ only a few really realize their true potentials and make efforts in life and the others just lead an average life.
5. Mr. Black is very happy because the clothes made in his factory have never been ________ popular.
6. The children loved their day trip, and they enjoyed the horse ride ________.
三. 根据固定搭配
1. Sports can be very beneficial to kids _____ many ways.
2. ______ a matter of fact, I’ve never been there.
3. Would you please clear ____ your room?
4. This made the goat so jealous _______ it began plotting against the donkey.
四. 根据生活常识和文化背景
1. Before I came to Finland to attend this meeting two weeks ago, I had no idea what kind of clothes I should take along. Fortunately, my friend Julia has been to _____________ Europe.
2. After the flood, Mr. Deng was as poor as a church ________.
3. The Nobel Prize in Physics is the __________ honor in the field of science.
解题步骤:
在解答这类题时,考生可以用“三步一回头”的方法来解题,即一看,二定,三变,四回头。
         一看:看全文。该题型是通过语篇在语境中考查语法知识和词汇,因此考生在解题前应快速浏览短文,把握全文大意。这一步非常重要,它有助于考生理清文章主线和上下文之间的逻辑关系,把握文章的脉络,为解题作好必要的准备。
         二定:定词类。在理解全文的基础上,根据先易后难的原则,分析句子结构以确定该填哪类词。所填词多为连词(包括主从复合句和并列复合句的连词)、冠词、介词、代词(人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、不定代词等)、形容词和副词(包括比较级和最高级)。例如:句子缺主语或宾语,空格处需填代词或名词;几个单词或短语间有空格,可能需填连词;若句子完整,很可能是缺少状语,则需填副词;句子缺少表语、定语或补语,则或许应填形容词。另外,也有对固定搭配、习语和句型的设题。
        三变:变词形。考生在确定好词类后,必须关注词形的变化。这一步对于考生能否取得高分起着举足轻重的作用,但却经常被考生忽视,例如,在填空时应注意名词和动词的单复数;a和 an的选择;形容词和副词的比较级和最高级;动词的时态;代词的各种形式等等。
        四回头:回头看全文。完成好填空后,再把文章从头至尾读一遍,检查上下文是否连贯,有无句子理解错误等等问题。
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